Israel's clever coronavirus vaccination strategy
Israel has become a world leader in COVID-19 vaccination. It also supplies BioNTech-Pfizer with valuable data from the national vaccination campaign. The most recent results offer reason for optimism.
Though vaccination progress in many EU countries is slow because of supply bottlenecks at manufacturers, Israel currently has more available supply than national demand.
To date, Israel has administered the most COVID-19 vaccine doses per capita in the world. More than 3.67 million Israelis have received the first dose of the BioNTech-Pfizer mRNA vaccine since the vaccination campaign began on December 20. This represents about 40% of the country's population. More than 28% have already received the second dose. And among those over 60, more than 80% have already been vaccinated. Meanwhile, anyone over the age of 16 can be vaccinated immediately.
Israel currently has so much supply from BioNTech-Pfizer that Moderna's vaccine is not even being administered yet, even though it has been licensed in Israel since January 5.
The Israeli vaccination campaign is already showing clear signs of success: The number of infections is falling significantly, especially among people older than 60, as preliminary analysis by the Weizmann Institute (preprint) shows. In this age group, there were 56% fewer infections, 42% fewer hospitalizations and 35% fewer COVID-19 deaths after the second dose.
Vaccines in exchange for valuable data
The fact that the nation of 9 million people was able to secure such large quantities of vaccine has to do with the special terms Israel negotiated in contracts with manufacturers. Unlike the EU, Israel did not keep these contracts under lock and key, but made the agreement with Pfizer available on the internet.
According to the agreement, Israel pays significantly more than the EU for each vaccine dose of the BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine, reportedly about €23 ($28) per dose compared with the €12 paid by the EU.
In addition, the Israeli state retains product liability. The European Union, on the other hand, was very keen that BioNTech-Pfizer continue to be liable for the safety of the product.
Most importantly, Israel's government agreed with vaccine manufacturers to provide weekly data from the vaccination campaign to them. This includes infection and vaccination numbers, as well as patient demographics such as age and gender. The data is sent to Pfizer anonymously, according to Israeli officials.
Thanks to the digitized health care system in Israel, the pharmaceutical companies not only receive data quickly and reliably, but above all they get much more data than they would from any other study. It is an invaluable source of information for the pharmaceutical companies.
In return, the manufacturers committed to supplying Israel with vaccines until immunization of 95% of the population is achieved.
Encouraging data from insurance companies
The latest findings on the vaccine's effectiveness also come from insurance data from Maccabi, one of the four public health insurance companies that insure Israelis. The data were published by the Times of Israel.
Data were collected one week after the second dose — i.e., at the time when the vaccination is presumed to have already developed its full protective effect.
Of the 523,000 people insured, only 544 contracted SARS-CoV-2 after the second dose. This corresponds to a proportion of 0.1%. Of the 544 infected, 15 required hospitalization. Of those patients, eight had only mild symptoms, three had moderate symptoms and only four suffered a severe course. Not a single person died as a result of COVID-19.
The health insurance company compared the data collected with 628,000 unvaccinated insured persons, 18,425 of whom became infected during the same period. From this, Maccabi calculates that the vaccine was 93% effective.
These figures offer hope, not only because they are in line with those published by BioNTech-Pfizer after phase 3 studies. They also shows that the vaccine appears to protect against a severe course of the disease and can minimize deaths.
"This data unequivocally proves that the vaccine is very effective, and we have no doubt that it has saved the lives of many Israelis," senior Maccabi official Miri Mizrahi Reuveni said.
The Maccabi data are only representative to a limited extent because demographics such as age and previous illnesses of the group studied have not been published yet. Data expected soon from Clalit, Israel's largest insurance company, may provide further insight.
In addition, data on the vaccine's effectiveness among younger populations, pregnant women and people with conditions such as diabetes and cancer should be available in the next two weeks.
Effective even with mutations?
The latest figures from Israel do not permit conclusions about how well the vaccines work under real-life conditions against the significantly more infectious new virus variants. Under laboratory conditions, the BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine is effective against both the British variant B.1.1.7 and the South African mutation B.1.351, BioNTech reports. But these are just laboratory analyses. Robust real-world evidence is not yet available.
These data exist for other vaccines. AstraZeneca's, for example, did very poorly in a preliminary study in South Africa (preprint), because its efficacy against the variant that is rampant there fell to about 10%. Nevertheless, even then the AstraZeneca vaccine apparently still protects very effectively against severe courses of COVID-19 and death.
According to Florian Krammer, a vaccine researcher at the Icahn School of Medicine in New York, this is because of the immune response from T cells, which is probably not as strongly affected by mutations in the virus as the immune response from antibodies.
According to a new preliminary study (preprint), seven new variants have been identified across the United States, all of which have developed a mutation in the same genetic letter, said co-authorJeremy Kamil, a virologist at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport. It remains unclear whether the variants are more contagious.
In any case, vaccine manufacturers will most likely have to adapt their vaccines to new variants.
Easing despite high infection rates
Though many countries have been slow with their vaccination campaigns, Israel has now, for the first time, lifted some of the restrictions that had been in place since late December. Citizens can now move freely around the country again. Day care centers and schools are open again. Even businesses and stores are opening again, with limits on customer traffic.
Yet the infection figures are still very high, even by international standards — they are nearly 400 per 100,000 over the past seven days. In Germany, they are currently around 60 per 100,000.
In principle, the infection figures in Israel could decline more rapidly if a recent study by the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, proves to be true. According to the institute's calculations, people who are vaccinated and still get infected would be less contagious.
Younger Israelis have reservations
There is a significantly lower willingness to be vaccinated among younger Israelis. For the first time in the entire pandemic, more people under the age of 60 were hospitalized in Israel than in the 60-plus age group.
"We are also seeing young people connected to an ECMO [heart and lung] machine — something we have not really seen before," Idit Matot, head of anesthesiology at Ichilov Hospital in Tel Aviv, told the news site ynetnews. "We are witnessing tragedies here."
To address vaccine hesitancy, the government is debating a corresponding bonus system or possible penalties.
Erez Barenboim, the director of the Assuta Ashdod University Hospital, urgently appealed to citizens' common sense.
"The coronavirus wards in all the hospitals are seeing older patients replaced by younger ones," Barenboim told ynetnews. "I say to the young population – the coronavirus wards are filled with people who have said 'it will never happen'. Go get vaccinated immediately."
From Sweden to Cyprus, Lithuania to Italy, the push to get people their first shots is now under way, 11 months after the first cases were reported in Europe. EU leaders have dubbed the launch of the drive "V-Day," a moment of unity in a pandemic that has killed more than 1.7 million people worldwide.
Edith Kwoizalla, aged 101, was one of the first Germans to be vaccinated. She took the first of two doses at a care home in the eastern state of Saxony-Anhalt on Saturday, a day before the official launch. German Health Minister Jens Spahn said he expected 1.3 million doses to be delivered by the end of the year, with double that number by the end of January.
The country is largely relying on mobile teams to distribute the BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine, such as here at a care home in Grossräschen, in Germany's eastern Brandenburg state. Most of the more than 400 planned vaccination centers will not be up and running until the next few days.
The vaccine, developed partly by a German firm, has been snapped up by governments around the world. BioNTech has "scientific confidence" that its coronavirus vaccine will also work on the new variant detected in the UK, company CEO Ugur Sahin told DW. The proteins on the mutated form of the virus were 99% the same as the prevailing virus, he said.
Hungary began vaccinating health care workers on Saturday, a day ahead of the EU's planned start date. Hungary has recorded over 316,000 cases and more than 9,000 deaths since the start of the pandemic.
A Warsaw paramedic was one of the first people to receive the vaccine in Poland on Sunday. The first batch of 10,000 doses was transported from Pfizer's facility in Belgium to a warehouse in central Poland a day earlier. Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki called the launch "a great step in fighting the epidemic."
EU leaders and scientists have gone to great lengths to insist the vaccine is safe. In the Czech Republic, Prime Minister Andrej Babis (seen here) was at the head of the line for his vaccination on Sunday. In Vienna, three women and two men over the age of 80 got the vaccine in the presence of Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz.
Sweden, which has received praise and criticism for its looser handling of the pandemic, is expecting an initial batch of 10,000 shots, along with Norway. Denmark expects to have enough shots to initially vaccinate 40,000 people in care homes, followed by health care staff and those people with a high risk of illness. Iceland will receive 10,000 doses early in January.
An 84-year-old man became the first patient to receive the coronavirus vaccine in Cyprus. While Europe has some of the best-resourced health care systems in the world, the sheer scale of the effort means some countries are calling on retired medics to help. Other countries have loosened rules for who is allowed to give the injections.
A health care worker at the Hospital Favoriten in Vienna was one of the first in line to receive the vaccine. Austria is rolling the vaccine out through a three-stage program, starting with health care workers and people over the age of 65. Austria has recorded over 350,000 cases and more than 5,800 deaths since the start of the pandemic.
Mauricette, a 78-year-old French woman, was the first person to receive a dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine at the Rene-Muret hospital in Sevran, on the outskirts of Paris. France is aiming to vaccinate the first million people by the end of February. The country has been one of the hardest hit in Europe, with over 2.6 million recorded cases and nearly 63,000 deaths.
Italy began distributing the first batch of 10,000 shots on Sunday at the Niguarda hospital in Milan (seen here). In Rome, a 29-year-old nurse was the first to receive the jab at Rome's Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases. Health workers were first in line, with those over 80 to follow.
The first phase of Portugal's vaccine rollout aims to inoculate 10% of the population, with front-line workers and those over 50 with preexisting conditions taking priority. Here, a medical worker receives the vaccine at Santa Maria hospital in Lisbon.
Spain is set to receive 350,000 doses from Pfizer-BioNTech per week, with a total of nearly 4.6 million to be delivered over the next three months. The government has said it aims to vaccinate between 15 million and 20 million people in the first half of 2021. Here, a 72-year-old receives the first injection at the Vallecas nursing home in Madrid.